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Javascript Variables, Continued

In my previous post, I addressed the question of the speed of variable access, as originally explored by Mike Wilcox here. In the comment section of his blog, he posted a cogent response to my concerns that I failed to address at the time (about a month ago). Sorry about that, Mike – I blame the 10-month-old girl who consumes most of my time and attention lately :)


Terminology #

A commenter on that post appears to take serious offense with my choice of terminology, so let’s start by clearing that up:

  • Array Notation: What I am referring to here is the array-like syntax for accessing properties on Javascript objects. I am fully aware that there is a difference between accessing string-keyed and integer-keyed properties in this way. But it is not uncommon to refer to this as array-access notation. Call it what you will, but I suspect anyone reading this will have little trouble understanding what I’m referring to.

  • Globals and Fields: Perhaps I’m letting my Java-centric view of the world poke through a bit here, but I thought it was fairly clear from the examples I gave. I was using the term “global” to refer to a globally-scoped variable defined with an explicit “var” statement. The term “field” I used somewhat loosely to refer to an explicitly-defined property on an object. Again, sorry if this wasn’t clear from context. Henceforth, I’ll refer to the latter as “properties”, which is more accurate in a Javascript context.

Now allow me a moment to clarify speicifically why I bring up the question of “array access” notation vs. “dot” notation (call them what you will). The problem with using them interchangeably in performance tests is that while logically they both refer to properties on an object, we have no reason to believe that their performance will be identical in all Javascript engines. In addition, there is good reason to suspect that accessing globals via window[name] may be significantly different from simply accessing them via an unadorned name expression.

Mike’s Concerns>

Mike’s Concerns #

From Mike’s comment:

I think we were going for slightly different goals, and that makes your tests very complimentary to mine.

This is an entirely fair point. Let me attempt to justify the particular forms of variable access that I chose to test. In a nutshell, I wanted to test the precise form of usage that I see in much, if not all, idiomatic Javascript, and that we produce from the GWT compiler. This involves global variables that are declared explicitly, as in:

var g0 = 0, g1 = 'foo', ...;

And objects whose fields (or properties, if you prefer), are explicitly declared and initialized (usually in a constructor function, but the expression form below is common as well):

  f0: 0,
  f1: 'foo',

These correspond to static and instance variables, respectively, in Java source code.

One thing to note, and I’m pretty sure neither of us did, is that the JS engine may possibly resolve those variables in the code block before the code is executed. Keeping them in functions (and not in the global scope) should prevent that.

setLVars = function(){ var a0=0;var a1=1;var a2=2;var a3=3;var a4=4; … 5000 }

I believe this is referring to the above test of initializing local variables, and it doesn’t sound inplausible. In an attempt to work around this possibility, the “locals” test I added separates variable declarations from their assignments, and uses the same random values as all the other tests to initialize them.

A word on closures>

A word on closures #

When I added the test for variable access “via closure”, it was to test a structure I’ve seen used a lot to isolate the “global” namespaces used by separate chunks of Javascript code. This pattern tends to look something like this:

(function() {
  var g0, g1, ...;

  function init() {
    // Do stuff with g0, g1, ...


This is a really useful pattern when you want to keep separately-loaded scripts from stepping on each-others’ toes, and I thought it worthwhile to see if using such a structure imposed any significant overhead on access to globals.

You may note that my results for closures are much more flattering on some browsers than before. This is because I made a bad typo in the test and failed to declare the variables properly. This led to them being declared implicitly in the global scope.

Test Code>

Test Code #

It also appears that both my dear commenter and Mike Wilcox himself had some difficulty reproducing my results with the simple snippets I provided, so I am publishing the test page here. I’ve made a few changes in the process:

  1. I have changed references to “fields” to refer to “properties” for clarity.
  2. I added a test for “locals” that should be self-explanatory.
  3. I fixed a bug in the “closures” case that was skewing the results fairly badly.

If anyone notices anything amiss with this code, please do let me know. I am aware that the tests conflate read and write times, and that the accumulator code makes their absolute values irrelevant. What I’m attempting to tease out here is only the relative costs of defining variables in each scope.


Results #

(Note that for simplicity’s sake, I’ve simplified these results to only cover Safari 4, IE8, Firefox 3.5, and Chrome 2)

MacBook Pro 2.4 GHz Core 2 Duo:

  • Safari 4:

    • Globals: 11ms
    • Properties: 24ms
    • Locals: 12ms
    • Closures: 11ms
  • Firefox 3.5:

    • Globals: 44ms
    • Properties: 47ms
    • Locals: 14ms
    • Closures: 91ms

VMWare on aforementioned Mac:

  • IE8:

    • Globals: 31ms
    • Properties: 47ms
    • Locals: 15ms
    • Closures: 31ms
  • Chrome 2:

    • Globals: 28ms
    • Properties: 30ms
    • Locals: 5ms
    • Closures: 6ms
  • Firefox 3.5:

    • Globals: 32ms
    • Properties: 35ms
    • Locals: 16ms
    • Closures: 69ms

Again, please note that the results for closures are rather different than in my previous post, because of the aforementioned bug in my original test.

Regardless, though, the most clear patterns that emerge here are as follows:

  • In none of these cases are properties on a local object faster to access than globally-scoped variables.
  • Locals are almost invariably faster than (or the same speed as) global or property accesses, which is not terribly surprising.
  • Accessing variables via closure can be as fast as accessing variables in the global scope, but on Chrome it’s actually faster, while on Firefox 3.5 it’s about twice as slow.